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PA and Fatah personalities
Abbas Zaki
PA and Fatah personalities
Mahmoud Abbas
Abbas Zaki
Yasser Arafat
PA Mufti Muhammad Hussein
Ibrahim Mudayris
Mahmoud Al-Habbash
Ahmed Qurei
Salam Fayyad
Issa Karake
Jibril Rajoub
Abbas Zaki
Abbas Zaki is a senior official in Fatah. He is currently a member of the Fatah Central Committee and (since 2009) the Commissioner of Relations with Arab Countries and Relations with China. He was the PLO Ambassador in Lebanon until 2009 [Ma'an, independent Palestinian news agency, Sept. 10, 2009].
Click to see more details about Abbas Zaki's political career in report from the Washington Institute
 
He remains a close associate of PA Chairman Mahmoud Abbas and has also been chosen on several occasions to deliver speeches in Chairman Abbas’ name.
Abbas and Zaki’s close working relationship is an indicator of Zaki’s seniority in PA government, thereby making his statements and positions on various issues all the more significant. Palestinian Media Watch has documented numerous statements by Abbas Zaki glorifying terror and denying Israel’s right to exist. For instance, Zaki stated in 2011 on Al-Jazeera TV that that the goal is for Israel to be “removed from existence.” He went on to say that “this is not a [stated] policy. You can’t say it to the world. You can say it to yourself.”

The following section documents relevant statements made by Abbas Zaki:
Fatah official: “Jesus was a Palestinian”  
Source: Official Palestinian Authority TV, Apr. 20, 2017

Official PA TV program Palestine This Morning

Fatah Central Committee member Abbas Zaki:
 ”The Christians know that Jesus Christ was a Palestinian. He really was from Jerusalem, and his resurrection was from Jerusalem.”
Click to view video
Fatah official glorifies planner of murders of 125: Abu Jihad – “a talented man whom Allah loved”  
Source: Official Palestinian Authority TV, Apr. 20, 2017

Official PA TV program Palestine This Morning

Fatah Central Committee member Abbas Zaki: "We have a talented man whom Allah loved and made people love, and his name is Abu Jihad. He said: “Continue to attack!” ... After Abu Jihad died as a Martyr, 24 people who accompanied him died as Martyrs out of love for the leader, because the only enemy is Israel. [Abu Jihad] aspired to conquer the [Israeli] Ministry of Defense and turned Dalal Mughrabi into a republic for 15 hours between Haifa and Tel Aviv. Therefore, O prisoners, O my beloved, if you are destined for death as Martyrs, then Abu Jihad stands before your eyes. And if you are destined for victory, standing before your eyes are those important people of stature who, despite Israel’s hostility, left the prisons."
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Abu Jihad (Khalil Al-Wazir) was a founder of Fatah and deputy to Yasser Arafat. He headed the PLO terror organization's military wing and also planned many deadly Fatah terror attacks in the 1960’s - 1980’s. These attacks, in which a total of 125 Israelis were murdered, included the most lethal in Israeli history - the hijacking of a bus and killing of 37 civilians, 12 of them children in 1978. The attack was led by Dalal Mughrabi and is known as the Coastal Road massacre.
Fatah official glorifies Abu Jihad at conference honoring the arch-terrorist  
Source: Official PA daily, Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, Apr. 16, 2017
Headline: "Ramallah: Conference regarding the life of Martyr Khalil Al-Wazir on the anniversary of his death as a Martyr"
       "Fatah Central Committee member [and Fatah Commissioner for Arab and China Relations] Abbas Zaki spoke about Abu Jihad's role in realizing the national unity. He noted that 'The Martyr was a great man and a consensus figure in the eyes of all the members of our people. He was a philosopher and a fighter with patience and a pure heart. He had no enemy other than the occupation, and he knew how and when to confront the occupation.' Zaki added that 'Abu Jihad, who was buried in Damascus in a funeral that included almost a million people, was Allah's gift to Palestine and the Martyrs, and a source of authority for all of the faithful and loving.' He also emphasized that 'Abu Jihad' has indeed passed on in his body, but will remain forever in memory."

Click "full article" for a longer excerpt from the article and for background information
Fatah official praises Black September terrorists, “heroic” Palestinian prisoners 
Source: Official PA daily, Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, Apr. 12, 2017
Headline: "Zaki: We are prepared on the level of the large national events, and the Palestinian right will overcome"
    “Fatah Central Committee member Abbas Zaki said that the Palestinian right will undoubtedly overcome the Israeli lie, and emphasized that it is necessary to be prepared on the level of large national events. Zaki said yesterday [April 11, 2017] in an interview with Radio Mawtini for the 44th anniversary of the death as Martyrs (Shahids) of leadership members Muhammad Yusuf Al-Najjar (i.e., Arafat's deputy and Black September terrorist organization commander of operations), Kamal Nasser, and Kamal Adwan (i.e., members of Black September): 'The deaths as Martyrs of leadership members Muhammad Yusuf Al-Najjar, Kamal Nasser, and Kamal Adwan was a great loss for Palestine and the PLO.'
He added: 'Abu Yusuf Al-Najjar was among Fatah's leaders and founders, and was the symbol of Palestine abroad, as he served as the head of the PLO political department.' […]
For the campaign and events of solidarity with the prisoners Zaki sent greetings of appreciation to leader prisoner Marwan Barghouti and all of the heroic prisoners and praised their role in the national struggle and their ability to give despite the darkness of the prisons and their suffering."

Click "full article" for more information
Fatah official participates in event honoring terrorist who led murder of 37 
Source: Facebook page of Abbas Zaki, Fatah Central Committee member and Fatah Commissioner for Arab and China Relations, Mar. 12, 2017
Images and text posted on the Facebook page of Fatah Central Committee member and Fatah Commissioner for Arab and China Relations Abbas Zaki

The top image shows Fatah Central Committee member and Fatah Commissioner for Arab and China Relations Abbas Zaki standing on a stage and giving a speech at a Fatah event for terrorist Dalal Mughrabi. Two large photos of Mughrabi adorn the stage together with Fatah’s logo that includes a grenade, crossed rifles, and the PA map of “Palestine” that presents all of Israel as “Palestine” together with the PA areas.

Text on sign next to Zaki featuring Mughrabi’s picture: “Jerusalem is our oath”
Posted text: “The 39th anniversary of the death as a Martyr (Shahid) of Palestinian fighter Dalal Mughrabi (i.e., terrorist who led murder of 37, 12 of them children), one of the most famous Palestinian self-sacrificing fighters (Fida’iya). She was born in 1958 in one of the refugee camps in Beirut, and was the daughter of a family from the city of Jaffa that escaped to Lebanon due to the Nakba (i.e., “the catastrophe,” Palestinian term for the establishment of the State of Israel) of 1948.”
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Dalal Mughrabi led the most lethal terror attack in Israel’s history, known as the Coastal Road massacre, in 1978, when she and other Fatah terrorists hijacked a bus on Israel's Coastal Highway, murdering 37 civilians, 12 of them children, and wounding over 70.
Fatah official glorifies terrorist Dalal Mughrabi: Terror attack that killed 37 “spread the spirit of victory in the hearts of the Palestinians” 
Source: Website of Fatah's Information and ‎Culture Commission, Mar. 11, 2017
Headline: “Zaki on the 39th anniversary of the operation: Dalal Mughrabi is a quality turning point in the history of the Palestinian struggle”
     “Fatah Movement Central Committee member and the movement’s Commissioner for Arab and China Relations Abbas Zaki compared the Martyr (Shahid) Kamal Adwan operation (i.e., the Coastal Road Massacre, 37 murdered, 12 of them children), which was led by Dalal Mughrabi, to the Karameh battle (see note below –Ed.). This is because it constituted an additional new beginning of the Palestinian resistance due to its deep influence, as it spread the spirit of victory in the hearts of the Palestinians and struck the Israeli occupation like lightning.
Zaki said in an interview with Radio Mawtini today, Saturday [March 11, 2017]: ‘On the 39th anniversary of the death as a Martyr of Palestinian fighter Dalal Mughrabi, we recall the planner of the operation, Martyr commander Abu Jihad (i.e., former head of the PLO terror organization’s military wing), who turned Martyr fighter Dalal into a legend who surpassed all of the military ranks and into a turning point in the military operations against the occupation…’”
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Click "full article" for a longer excerpt
Fatah official: "The PA has many and unlimited options for coming out against [moving the US embassy]," including "cancelling the recognition of Israel" 
Source: Palestine Today, independent Palestinian news agency (Gaza), Jan. 24, 2017
Headline: “Zaki: The options that the PA will turn to if the American embassy is transferred”
     “Fatah Central Committee member [and Fatah Commissioner for Arab and China Relations] Abbas Zaki emphasized today, Tuesday [Jan. 24, 2017], that if the American embassy is transferred to Jerusalem, the PA has many and unlimited options for coming out against this step.
Zaki said in radio statements and in exclusive statements that the options the PA can turn to if the embassy is transferred are an escalation on the ground, stopping the relations in their entirety, cancelling the recognition of Israel, and taking international steps to isolate it vis-à-vis the world, in addition to a request to international organizations that the US has no control over such as [it has over] the UN, where it has always used the right to veto to cancel resolutions condemning ‘Israel.’”
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Fatah official implies violent response if US embassy is moved to Jerusalem 
Source: Donia Al-Watan (independent Palestinian news agency), Jan. 23, 2017
Headline: “Zaki: We do not see Palestine without Jerusalem and will not sit idly by if the American embassy is transferred to Jerusalem”
      “Fatah Central Committee member Abbas Zaki emphasized that they will not sit idly by if the new American administration decides to transfer its embassy to occupied Jerusalem, and predicted a new type of mobilization to save the city, in which those who understand the spiritual status it represents will participate.
Zaki said in press statements: ‘We do not see Palestine without Jerusalem and therefore if the American embassy is transferred to the city, we will be exempt from all of the obligations and will renounce all existing ties, and whoever knocks on the door will hear a reply.’ …
Zaki said: ‘The Palestinians are a people of power, and Allah chose them to protect His holiest site, and in the end we will win and the Zionist extremists will pay the price.”
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Click "full article" for a longer excerpt
Fatah Central Committee member: Planner of Munich Massacre was "a name and symbol" 
Source: Official PA daily, Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, Jan. 23, 2017
Headline: “Zaki on the anniversary of the death as a Martyr of Salameh: He frightened the enemies of the revolution”
     “Fatah Central Committee member Abbas Zaki said that leader Ali Hassan Salameh (i.e., commander of the Black September terror organization) was a name and symbol who stunned and terrified the enemies of the Palestinian revolution. Zaki added in a radio interview yesterday [Jan. 22, 2017]: ‘Leader Martyr (Shahid) Salameh was wise and had strong willpower, and was one of the pioneers in the leadership of the [Fatah] Movement. He received the responsibility to command and carry out special missions. He made sure to learn everything possible in order to stun the enemies of the [Fatah] movement’…
He added: ‘This great man ascended [to Heaven] after an explosion in his car, even though he took precautions, but those who took his place avenged him.’”

Ali Hassan Salameh (son of Hassan Salameh, born 1940, killed Jan. 22, 1979, also called Abu Hassan) - Commander of operations of the Black September terror organization. He planned many terror attacks, including the attack on the Israeli team at the Munich Olympics in 1972, in which 11 Israeli athletes were murdered. (Deception p. 260)
Fatah official: Terrorist who planned Munich massacre was a "name and symbol that imposed fear on the enemies" 
Source: WAFA, official PA news agency, Jan. 22, 2017
Headline: “Zaki on the anniversary of the death as a Martyr of Abu Hassan Salameh: He was great and imposed fear on the enemies of the revolution”
     “Fatah Central Committee member Abbas Zaki said that commander Ali Hassan Salameh (i.e., commander of the Black September terror organization) was a name and symbol that imposed fear on the enemies of the Palestinian revolution.
Zaki added in an interview with Radio Mawtini today, Sunday [Jan. 22, 2017]: ‘Commander Martyr (Shahid) Salameh had wisdom and a strong will. He was one of the pioneers of the [Fatah] Movement leadership. He accepted the responsibility of the leadership and carried out the special missions. He was most determined to learn everything possible in order to impose fear on the enemies of the revolution.’”

Ali Hassan Salameh (son of Hassan Salameh, born 1940, killed Jan. 22, 1979, also called Abu Hassan) - Commander of operations of the Black September terror organization. He planned many terror attacks, including the attack on the Israeli team at the Munich Olympics in 1972, in which 11 Israeli athletes were murdered. (Deception p. 260)
PA and Fatah officials threaten consquences of moving the US embassy to Jerusalem 
Source: Official PA daily, Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, Jan. 20, 2017
Headline: “The West Bank rises up – no to the transfer of the American embassy to Jerusalem”
      “Thousands of citizens demonstrated yesterday [Jan. 19, 2017] in Ramallah, Nablus, and Hebron in protest of the decision to transfer the American embassy from Tel Aviv to occupied Jerusalem...  Fatah Central Committee member Jamal Muhaisen said ... ‘Transferring the embassy will destroy the possibilities of peace, and the response to it if it is implemented will be confrontation with the occupation on the ground by all possible means’ ... District Governor of Hebron Kamel Hamid... noted that Jerusalem is ‘a symbol of the intifadas, the conflicts, and the wars, but also a symbol of stability, peace, and love. Whoever dares [to act] against it will burn in its fire, and it is the red line of everyone respectable in the world.’ ... Fatah Central Committee member Abbas Zaki mentioned the danger of the decision to transfer the American embassy to Jerusalem, and warned against the danger of the position and its consequences. He noted that the Fatah Central Committee has decided to oppose this decision using all means.’... Fatah Central Committee member Mahmoud Al-Aloul... added that the Palestinian people is prepared for any sacrifice for Jerusalem and the land of Palestine, and cannot agree to this step.”
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Fatah official: If US transfers its embassy to Jerusalem, PA will cancel recognition of Israel  
Source: Al-Bayan, United Arab Emirates newspaper, Jan. 17, 2017
Headline: “A senior Fatah official to Al-Bayan: We will cancel the recognition of Israel if the American embassy is transferred”
     “Fatah Central Committee member Abbas Zaki emphasized that the Palestinian leadership will cancel the recognition of Israel and will reexamine all of the agreements if the new American administration transfers the American embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem…
The Fatah Central Committee member said in response to these American efforts that the Palestinian leadership will go all the way if the Trump administration transfers the embassy to Jerusalem, which includes a reexamination of all of the previous agreements and the cancellation of the recognition of Israel. He emphasized that the Palestinians cannot see their country without Jerusalem, and that they will defend it with all of the means at their disposal.”
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Click "full article" for a longer excerpt and for background information
Fatah official: US embassy move will be "a sign of the end of the world" 
Source: Official PA daily, Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, Jan. 12, 2017
Headline: "Zaki: Transferring the American embassy to Jerusalem will absolve us of all the agreements and turn Palestine into a war zone"
     "Fatah Central Committee member Abbas Zaki emphasized that the Palestinian leadership will not allow the transfer of the American embassy, and will be absolved of the previous decisions and agreements. He also warned against turning Palestine into a war zone if the new American administration decides to transfer it.
Zaki said today, Wednesday [Jan. 11, 2017], in an interview with Radio Mawtini: 'The transfer of the American embassy to Jerusalem will be a sign of the end of the world.' He added: 'The attack against the place of [Prophet] Muhammad’s Ascent to Heaven and Jesus' resurrection contradicts the religious and international understandings,' and he warned against the terrible dangers whose course cannot be predicted. Zaki emphasized that no power in the world can prevent the Palestinians, Muslims, and Christians as one from carrying out their national obligation to defend their occupied capital, and said: 'There is no Palestinian state without Jerusalem.'
Zaki said that he is convinced that the statements of US President-elect [Donald] Trump that were used during the election campaign cannot be implemented on the ground in Palestine and noted that this trend appeared in the 1960s when [former Israeli Prime Minister David] Ben-Gurion proposed it in order to establish the occupation state in Jerusalem and to destroy the Al-Aqsa Mosque in order to establish the alleged Temple."
 
Published in Donia Al-Watan, independent Palestinian news agency, Jan. 11, 2017; and in the official PA daily Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, Jan. 12, 2017.

 
Fatah official strongly condemns assassination of Russian ambassador as terrorism 
Source: Official Facebook page of Fatah Central ‎Committee Member Abbas Zaki, Dec. 21, 2016
Text and image of a letter posted on the official Facebook page of Fatah Central Committee member Abbas Zaki


Posted text:
“[Fatah Central Committee member and Fatah Commissioner for Arab and China Relations] brother Abbas Zaki expresses condolences to Russian Federation Ambassador in the State of Palestine [Alexander Rudakov] over the death of Russian Ambassador in Turkey [Andrey Karlov] as a result of an act of terror (on Dec. 19, 2016, Karlov was shot and killed by an off duty Turkish police officer, who afterwards shouted that he acted in revenge over Russia’s role in Syria and Aleppo –Ed.).”

Text of the letter in the image:
“His Honor, the honorable brother Alexander Rudakov
Ambassador of the Russian Federation in the State of Palestine

Greetings, and to the point:

On my behalf and on behalf of my colleagues in the Fatah Movement Central Committee and Revolutionary Council, I send you - and through you to His Honor [Russian] President Vladimir Putin and the friend, the Russian people – the most warm and sincere condolences over the death of Russian Ambassador in Turkey [Andrey Karlov] as a result of a terrorist assassination act, which was carried out by a criminal terror gang devoid of all human and moral values.
This criminal act of terror targeted the role of friend Russia in the war against these dark Takfir (i.e., the act of accusing other Muslims of heresy) gangs, which are supported by several regional powers; this brave role, which is meant to protect the security and stability of the peoples of the region. We in Fatah sharply condemn and denounce the criminal assassination act and salute the brave Russian role..."

Click "full article" for more.
Fatah official calls on Arab states to reexamine their relations with the US in light of US embassy move to Jerusalem 
Source: Ma’an, independent Palestinian news agency, Dec. 20, 2016
Headline: “Zaki: Transferring the American embassy to Jerusalem is a scandalous violation of the international institutions’ resolutions”
     “Member of the Central Committee of the Fatah Movement and Fatah Commissioner for Arab and China Relations Abbas Zaki called on the international community to take the required steps against the new American administration, if the promise of US President[-elect] Donald Trump to transfer the American embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem is indeed implemented.
He added that if the American administration transfers its embassy to Jerusalem, this will constitute a scandalous and blatant violation of the international resolutions, and a clear violation of the American foreign policy on the issue, as the previous administrations have not dared to do this since the occupation of Jerusalem in 1967.
Zaki said this in an exclusive statement in response to the appointment of David Friedman as US Ambassador to Israel, and in response to his [Friedman’s] statements when he said that he eagerly anticipates traveling to Israel and working from within ‘Israel’s eternal capital,’ as he put it…
Zaki said that if the American administration does indeed do this, it will expose its true face – that it is completely biased in favor of the Israeli occupation, and is not interested at all in the peace process.
He added that Arab states that still rely on the American role in the region need to raise their voices and make their firm statements on the issue heard.
Likewise, Zaki called on the Arab and Islamic states to reexamine their relations with the US.”
Click to view bulletin
Fatah official praises Hamas: Fatah and Hamas are in one trench against Israel  
Source: Al-Jazeera, Dec. 17, 2016

Rally in the West Bank for the 29th anniversary of the founding of the Hamas terrorist organization, posted on the Al-Jazeera YouTube channel

Member of Fatah Central Committee Abbas Zaki: "I say here on behalf of Fatah - at all its levels - how much we hope for cooperation [with Hamas] in events and true cooperation in policy, in order to be in one trench again against our common enemies, against Israel."
(Audience applauds) "O the Al-Qassam Brigades (i.e., Hamas’ military wing)"
Abbas Zaki: "Blessings to the Al-Qassam Brigades."
(Audience applauds)
Abbas Zaki: "Anyone who bore arms for Palestine is holy and important to us, as he bore arms while knowing that his soul and property are a sacrifice for the homeland whether he lives in prison or in Paradise... Blessings also to anyone who bore arms from the different factions."
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Fatah holds mourning event in honor of Fidel Castro: "We have lost a great leader, and we must follow in his footsteps" 
Source: WAFA, official PA news agency, Nov. 27, 2016
Headline: “A house of mourning in Ramallah for the late international leader Fidel Castro”
     “The Fatah Commission of International Relations and the Palestinian-Cuban Friendship Society held a house of mourning this evening, Sunday [Nov. 27, 2016], for the late international leader Fidel Castro at the Grand Park Hotel in Ramallah, in the presence of members of the PLO Executive Committee, the Fatah Central Committee, and representatives of the various national factions. The participants of the mourning event expressed their deep sorrow over the death of leader Castro and their solidarity with the friend, the Cuban people. Fatah Central Committee member [and Fatah Commissioner for Arab and China Relations] Abbas Zaki said that Castro always took care of the Palestinian people and also worked for the liberation of Palestine. He added: ‘We have lost a great leader, and we must follow in his footsteps and path in order to get rid of the occupation.’
He added that Fidel is the anthem of all the revolutionaries in the world, and he is the one who said ‘A homeland that we do not defend – we have no right to it,’ and he spoke a lot about Palestine and always supported the struggle of our people against the occupation.”
Fatah official sends letter of condolences to Cuban president over death of former dictator Fidel Castro  
Source: Facebook page of Abbas Zaki, Fatah Central Committee member and Fatah Commissioner for Arab and China Relations, Nov. 26, 2016

Posted text: “Fatah Central Committee member and Fatah Commissioner for Arab and People’s [Republic of] China Relations brother Abbas Zaki expresses condolences over the death of international revolutionary Fidel Castro”

For details click on "full article"

Abbas advisor: "The Palestinian search and rescue forces took part in putting out the fires in Israel out of ethical and humane motives" 
Source: Official Palestinian Authority TV, Nov. 25, 2016
Official PA TV, Friday prayers at the PA’s presidential headquarters, sermon by Supreme Shari’ah Judge Mahmoud Al-Habbash in the presence of PA Chairman Mahmoud Abbas, Secretary-General of Abbas’ Presidential Office Al-Tayeb Abd Al-Rahim, and Fatah Central Committee member and Fatah Commissioner for Arab and China Relations Abbas Zaki

Supreme Shari’ah Judge, Mahmoud Abbas’ advisor on Religious and Islamic Affairs, and Chairman of the Supreme Council for Shari'ah Justice Mahmoud Al-Habbash: “In the last two days we have seen, and all the others have seen, the fires that have taken place (i.e., a wave of suspected Palestinian arson attacks in November 2016). We could have stood on the sidelines, and it is possible that no one would have blamed us. And it is even possible that some of the demagogues would have thought that this was the proper position to take. But our values, our religious values and our national cultural values, compel us to take part in putting out these fires. The Palestinian search and rescue forces took part in putting out the fires in Israel out of ethical and humane motives, because of the wonderful culture, and because of the most ethical direction of the Palestinian leadership. These are our values, and we will not deviate from them, even towards those who have done injustice to us and attacked us. Aggression is not a reason for aggression, or for renouncing values.”
Fatah official: "Israel has surpassed ISIS in its crimes," Israeli government permits "the burning of the mosques by the gangs of settlers" 
Source: Ma’an, independent Palestinian news agency, Nov. 16, 2016
Headline: “Zaki: The decision to forbid [the sounding of] the Muezzin in Jerusalem will not pass”
     “Fatah Central Committee member and [Fatah] Commissioner for Arab and China Relations Abbas Zaki warned against the danger of the Israeli decision to legislate a law forbidding [the sounding of] the Muezzin (i.e., the person who sings the Muslim call to prayer) in places of worship in the territories that were occupied in 1948 (i.e., Israel), and to legalize outposts (i.e., a bill legalizing Israeli towns in the West Bank)…
Zaki emphasized that Israel has surpassed ISIS in its crimes, and it is currently behaving like a gang of criminals. There is no difference between the destruction of the mosques by ISIS and the ban [on the sounding of] the Muezzin and the burning of the mosques by the gangs of settlers under the official and security cover of the occupation government.”

On Nov. 13, 2016, a bill to ban religious institutions from broadcasting over loudspeakers was approved for a preliminary reading in the Israeli Parliament. The bill is intended to prevent noise pollution. This bill is referred to by many as the "Muezzin Law," although it does not refer to any specific religion.
Other countries have already approved or attempted legislation for regulating the use of loudspeakers in mosques in order to limit noise pollution. These include India, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Turkey, Bahrain, the United Emirates, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, France, the UK, Austria, Norway, and Belgium, and the US. The PA has also passed legislation regarding the use of loudspeakers in mosques in order to reduce noise pollution.
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